Style guide

Please use this style guide when preparing your articles. The final publication will be formatted to the journal template but this guide will ensure consistency.

General Editing

We use standard English, using the Oxford English Dictionary as our source of reference. We also use the stylistic rules contained in the Oxford Guide to Style.

Please note that there is a preference for ‘ise’ endings rather than ‘ize’ (e.g. ‘organise’, ‘organisation’)

Please use the term “article” rather than “paper”


In addition to the copyright requirements above, authors need to submit images that are print-ready. As a general guide:

  • Images – JPG/Tiff format at a minimum of 300dpi at the size they are intended to be used at.
  • Logos – Supplied as Illustrator AI or EPS (version CS4) with all fonts outlined. PDF files may be accepted, provided they are vector based PDF files with all fonts outlined.
  • Diagrams – Preferably supplied as Illustrator AI or EPS (version CS4) with all fonts outlined. PDF files may be accepted, provided they are vector based PDF files with all fonts outlined. Pixel based images for diagrams are acceptable also, but as above, these should be a minimum of 300dpi at the size they are intended to be used at

e.g. PAR (practice as research), PhD, DPhil, MA, BSc, BDes, ibid.,

If listing countries include the full spelling e.g. European Union, United States. If using a country as an adjective use the abbreviation e.g. EU policy, US design


The author should bear in mind that the abstract may be read by someone from a different discipline.


Authors should be listed in the order that they appear on the manuscript. The name should appear in full (e.g. Adam De Eyto) and if required middle names should be initials without full stops (e.g. John PS Connor).

Author affiliations should only include department or faculty, institution, company, country. Affiliations should not include titles, positions, qualifications, street names.

Author names should be annotated with superscripted numbers, not automated endnotes. If all authors are at the same affiliation no superscript numerals are required.

Adam De Eyto1, Mureann Mc Mahon1, Carmel Maher2

Adam De Eyto
Department of Design and Manufacturing Technology, University of Limerick, Ireland

Muireann Mc Mahon
Department of Design and Manufacturing Technology, University of Limerick, Ireland

Carmel Maher
Department of industrial Design, Institute of Technology Carlow, Ireland

For original research articles remove the authors’ names and affiliations for the double-blind review process.

Bullet Points

When using bullet points, capitalise the first word of each bullet if the bullet is a sentence. If the bullet is a list of single points use no punctuation.


Do not use contractions e.g. didn’t, don’t, i’ll, etc.


Display dates as 30 March 1978, 1980s, 1964-67; 1897-1901, nineteenth century, twentieth century, twenty-first century.


Ideally diagrams will be created in a common graphics software package, such as Adobe illustrator or Inkscape, rather than in word. Diagrams can be supplied to us as JPG, TIFF or Acrobat PDF documents.

If an error is identified in a diagram, make the amendments and re-supply

Figures, photos, illustrations and tables

All figures, photos, illustrations and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.


We do not use footnotes or endnotes.

Headings and Sub-headings
  1. Headings should have an initial capital with everything else lowercase, unless proper names.
  2. Italics can be included in A heads (H1) if needed, e.g. mathematical symbol
  3. Where headings are referred to in the text use section names

A head (H1) (bold with initial cap, all the rest lowercase)

A Heading

B head (H2) (italic with initial cap, all the rest lowercase)

B Heading

C head (H3) (same as B head, but set as first line of paragraph, full out; italic with initial cap, all the rest lowercase, followed by a full stop. Following text runs on)

C Heading. 

Headings for Abstract, Keywords, Funding, Acknowledgements, Conflict of interest (in that order), References, Appendices are same as A head but smaller font size

Key words

Keywords should be presented in lower case.

Meta Data

The following metadata must be included with the article:

  • Article title
  • Abstract (approx. 100–200 words)
  • Keywords (six to eight)

We also require the address and e-mail addresses of the main author for administrative purposes.

Reviews (Book, Film, Play etc.) must contain the title of the item, full publication details and the name of the reviewer and their affiliation.

  • one to twenty (in words); 21-99 (in figures);
  • 100, 200, 1000, 1500, 5000, 10,000
  • thirty, forty, fifty (if expressed as an approximation)
  • 15 years old (only introduce hyphens to avoid ambiguity, for example ‘he is 7 years old’, but ‘7-year-old children’)
  • 3 per cent, 4.7 per cent, 10 per cent, 25 per cent
  • pp. 10-19, 19-21; 102-07, 347-49
  • 16mm, 35mm

ITERATIONS uses the Harvard style of referencing.

All references mentioned in the text need to listed. Ensure the references are complete so that a reader can find them.


Number consecutively but do not number subsections.


All tables should be numbered consecutively and cited in the article text.  A title of no more than 15 words and a legend shold be providesd. Any abbreviation in the title should be explained.

Place all tables at the appropriate position in the text, not at the end.